Yildizhan et al. (2023) International Journal of Molecular Sciences DOI: 10.3390/ijms24043764
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have attracted great attention as potential biomarkers for cancer diagnostics. Although several technologies have been developed for EV detection, many of them are still not applicable to clinical settings as they rely on complex EV isolation processes, while lacking sensitivity, specificity or standardization. To solve this problem, we have developed a sensitive breast cancer‐specific EV detection bioassay directly in blood plasma using a fiber‐optic surface plasmon resonance (FO‐SPR) biosensor, previously calibrated with recombinant EVs. First, we established a sandwich bioassay to detect SK‐BR‐3 EVs by functionalizing the FO‐SPR probes with anti‐HER2 antibodies. A calibration curve was built using an anti‐HER2/Banti‐CD9 combina‐ tion, resulting in an LOD of 2.1 × 10^7 particles/mL in buffer and 7 × 10^8 particles/mL in blood plas‐ ma. Next, we investigated the potential of the bioassay to detect MCF7 EVs in blood plasma using an anti‐EpCAM/Banti‐mix combination, obtaining an LOD of 1.1 × 10^8 particles/mL. Finally, the specificity of the bioassay was proven by the absence of signal when testing plasma samples from 10 healthy people unknown to be diagnosed with breast cancer. The remarkable sensitivity and specificity of the developed sandwich bioassay together with the advantages of the standardized FO‐SPR biosensor highlight outstanding potential for the future of EV analysis.