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FOx BIOSYSTEMS quantification in crude samples applications icon

The FOx technology uses fiber-optic-based surface plasmon resonance (FO-SPR) to directly measure an analyte of interest from blood, resuspended dried blood spots and other crude matrices. Providing accurate results from a range of sample inputs demonstrates the robustness and versatility of the FO-SPR technology.

  • Serum
  • Plasma
  • Whole blood
  • Dried blood spots
  • Cell supernatant
  • Cell lysate

Case study: Dry blood spot sampling

Dry blood spots are an ideal method for patients to provide blood samples from home, with minimal transportation requirements. However, blood cell bursting, and the altered structure of analytes caused by the drying process, can influence the detection efficiency.

In tests with infliximab (IFX), a monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, the FO-SPR bioassay demonstrated that:

  • The blood drying process did not affect analyte extraction or interfere with the bioassay antibodies.
  • IFX was uniformly distributed across the blood spot on the paper.
  • Non-specific binding due to blood cell bursting did not interfere with the FO-SPR bioassay.

FO-SPR can accurately detect antibodies in dried blood spots. The therapeutic drug antibody, infliximab (IFX), was spiked into blood and dried, or spiked to the dried blood spot. The IFX concentration from the extract using FO-SPR correlated well with both spiking methods and with ELISA.

Case study: Detecting a tumor protein in serum using gold nanoparticle sandwich amplification

The Pharmacology Department at the University of Cambridge are investigating a potential biomarker to detect triple negative breast cancer tumors in blood serum. Traditional technologies (ELISA, mass spectroscopy and conventional SPR) had proven unsuitable for their purposes, so they looked to the WHITE FOxTM for an alternative method.

FO-SPR with gold nanoparticle signal amplification matched or improved on the detection sensitivity of existing SPR technology. This allowed the development of a test suitable to retrospectively test patient samples for the candidate biomarker.

Relevant publications

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For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.